A RARE HERB OF MADHYA PRADESH HAVING PIVOTAL IMPORTANCE IN FOLK REMEDIES

Kotlaiya is an important medicinal plant of the ancient system of healing. It is type of kantkāri, a medicinal plant widely used in Āyurveda in the treatment of respiratory diseases. It has been described as white variety of kantkārī. The present paper reviews the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional uses of the herb.

 


CALONYCTION MURICATUM (Linn.) G. Don (KOTLAIYA): A RARE HERB OF MADHYA PRADESH HAVING PIVOTAL IMPORTANCE IN FOLK REMEDIES

 

Dwivedi, S. N.1; Shrivastava, Satyaendra2; Dwivedi, Abhishek3; Gang, Piyush4; Dwivedi, Sumeet4* and Kaul, Shefali5

 

1, Principal Investigator, UGC Research Project on Medicinal Plants, Janta PG College, APS University, Rewa, M.P.

2, Head Of Deptt., Dr. RMS Institute of Science and Technology, Bhanpura, M.P.

3, NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Bhopal, M.P.

4, Chordia Institute of Pharmacy, Indore, M.P.

5, Q.C. Deptt. Plethico Pvt. Ltd. Indore, M.P.

ABSTRACT

Kotlaiya is an important medicinal plant of the ancient system of healing. It is type of kantkāri, a medicinal plant widely used in Āyurveda in the treatment of respiratory diseases. It has been described as white variety of kantkārī. The present paper reviews the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional uses of the herb.

 

* Corresponding Author

            SUMEET DWIVEDI

            Lecturer, Chordia Institute of Pharmacy

            Indore, Madhya Pradesh-India

            Mob. No. 09893478497

            E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Botanical Name: Canvolvulus muricatus Linn.

    Ipomoea muricata Jacq.

   Convolvulus colubrinus Blanco

Local names: Kotlaiya

Family: Convolvulaceae

Pharmacognosy

This is a smooth, climbing vine. The stems are rough, with small tuberculous outgrowths or prickles. The leaves are smooth, soft, heart-shaped, 5 to 10 centimeters long, and tapering abruptly into a narrow point at the tip. The flowers are large, 5 to 6 centimeters long, pale purple and borne singly or in small-stalked clusters resembling the morning glory. The fruit is rounded, and 10 to 15 millimeters in diameter. The seeds are polished, black, and smooth.

Guerrero reports that in the Philippines the seeds are vulnerary and are considered a very efficacious antidotal remedy for poisoning. They are also said to be purgative.

Kirtikar and Basu say that the seeds are used chiefly as a substitute for those of Ipomoea hederacea, seeming to have the same medicinal properties. The juice of the plant is used as an insecticide.

Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq, locally known as 'Kotlaiya', has been used for generations by the Dominicans in the Philippines for medicinal purposes. The seeds, stems and leaves are said to be effective in treating several types of skin ailments such as chronic and gangrenous wounds, cuts and blisters due to burns. Scientific investigations to rationalize the reported medicinal uses of the plant were carried out at University of Santo Tomas. Botanists at the University did the identification and studied the cultivation and propagation of the plant. Pharmacists and chemists worked closely together on the 'Kotlaiya' seeds.

 

Phytochemistry

 

 The seeds were found to have both analgesic and antiseptic properties. Chemists identified indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds, to which the analgesic properties have been attributed. Antimicrobial and antifungal compounds were also identified. Different formulations of the crude drug have been made, namely, an ointment for the treatment of skin ailments, glycerol preparation for the treatment of pharyngitis and an otic preparation for the treatment of otitis externa.

POSSIBLE REPRESENTATIVES OF KOTLAIYA

Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq. and Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. have been discussed as possible representatives for ancient vedic drug.

1. Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq.

Syn: Calonyction muricatum (L.) G. Don, Ipomoea turbinata Lag., Canvolvulus muricatus L., Ipomoea muricata Jacq., Convolvulus colubrinus Blanco

Common name: Purple moonflower.

Distribution: Native to Eastern India and Bangladesh.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Botany: Perennial vining climber to 30 feet. It is a rare climber, sporting unusual aerial rootless and white, funnel-shaped blossoms in the second year.

Chemical composition: Work done in Philippines has demonstrated presence of indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. Two resin glycosides and muricatins VII and VIII have been isolated from the seeds

Actions: According to Vedic myth and Hindu practice, the plant is an aphrodisiac and mystically used in tantric lovemaking.

Therapeutics:  The juice of this plant is employed to destroy bedbugs, and the seeds are said to be identical in their medicinal properties with those of the official plant. The seeds, stems and leaves are said to be effective in treating several types of skin ailments such as chronic and gangrenous wounds, cuts and blisters due to burns.

Pre-clinical studies: Analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial and antifungal compounds were also identified.

 

2.Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. 

Common name: Purple moonflower.

Distribution: Common throughout parts of Africa and Asia. It is distributed in Madagascar also.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Botany: Annual or biennial herb, the taproot 1-8 mm in diam.; stems erect, to c. 1 m tall, with sparse to moderate, appressed to spreading pubescence. Basal leaves in an evident rosette or smaller plants apparently immediately erect and lacking a basal rosette. Inflorescences terminal, once to several times dichotomously branched cymes, the branches strigillose; flowers on pedicels 1-7 mm long, bisexual; sepals narrowly ovate. Fruits 4.5-5.5 mm broad; nutlets ovoid, 2-3 mm broad.

Chemical composition: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: cynaustralin (C15H28ClNO4) and cynaustine.

TRADITIONAL USES

  • Pedicle is used as appetizer (Dwivedi, 2003).
  • Seed powder, 20 gm OD is used to cure constipation in cattle's (Dwivedi, 2004).

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