Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extracts of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.)Willd.

To evaluate the presence of phytoconstitute of ethanolic fractions of Zizyphus xylopyrus on anti- ulcer activity. Root powder of the plant was extracted successively with ethanol; Extract had pungent odour, showed the presence of desired phytochemicals i.e. flavonoids, tannin, phenol. Qualitative chemical tests were carried out for the ethanolic extract of Z. xylopyrus. The results of the tests showed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, saponins, phenolics, tannins, and flavonoids. On the basis of all the qualitative tests performed in each extracts; ethanolic extract was subjected for the further phytochemical and pharmacological studies because only the ethanolic extracts and saponins.

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The drug consists of the whole dried herb of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. (Family: Rhamnaceae) Zizyphus is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. The leaves are alternate, entire, with three prominent basal veins, and 2-7 cm long; some species are deciduous, others evergreen.The common name of this plant in Hindi - Kat-ber, Gote, Kakor, Ghont. A large, straggling shrub or a small three, armed with spines, up to 4 m. in height².The major chemical composition of Z. xylopyrus are rich in flavonoids in particular quercetin, quercitrin, kaempferol-4’-methylether and kaempferol, tannins (7.2%), d-7, 3’, 4’-trihydroxyflavan-3, 4-diol and oleanolic acid.

It also contains cyclopeptide alkaloids namely amphibine H, nummularine- K, xylopyrine - A and xylopyrine – B5. The bark was also found to contain betulinic acid (1%), betulin6. Fruit contains catechol-type of tannins (8-12%). Fruits were also reported to have oleanolic acid, l-leucocyanidin, 3, 3’, 4-tri-O-methyl-ellagic acid. Seeds unsaponifiable matter (0.8%) consists of a sterol, insoluble mixed fatty acid found to contain myristic, linoleic and oleic acid. This plant is widely used in Turkish folk medicines as a potent sedative. The root bark of this plant is reported to have antinociceptive, anti-convulsant and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from that the leaf of this plant has been reported to have antidepressant and antioxidant activities.  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiulcer activity of ehtanolic extract of Zizyphus xylopyrus and prove tribal claim scientifically.

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