Pharmacy Education On Internet

Modern information technologies and worldwide communication through the Internet play a significant role in medicinal plant research across the globe. The phenomenal growth in Internet usages is largely due to the success of World Wide Web. Various useful websites and databases about pharmacy education are already in the ‘Net’ and many more are being added constantly.

Pharmacy Education On Internet

Mishra B. S.1*, Dwivedi S. 2, Shashi A. 3, Dwivedi N. 4 and Jain S. 5

1,Vinayaka mission college of Pharmacy, Salem (T.N.)

2, Chordia Institute of Pharmacy, Indore (M.P.)

3, I.E.S. College of pharmacy,Bhopal (M.P.)

4, Famy care Limited Navi, Mumbai (MH)

5, Smriti College of Pharmaceutical Education, Indore (M.P.)

ABSTRACT       

 

Modern information technologies and worldwide communication through the Internet play a significant role in medicinal plant research across the globe. The phenomenal growth in Internet usages is largely due to the success of World Wide Web. Various useful websites and databases about pharmacy education are already in the ‘Net’ and many more are being added constantly. The future of pharmacy education is handling the existing information in proper way. In this review of the Internet, compilation of important web sites is expected to stimulate, instruct and update academician involved in pharmacy education.

Keywords- Internet, Pharmacy education.

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Internet is a global computer network allowing communication with millions of computer users and access to resources from around the world.1 what type of computer is used for connection to the Internet doesn’t matter, a virtually limitless wealth of resources is available for every day use. The Internet is also a world wide computer network which allow communication with millions of other Internet users and use of web resources throughout the world.2

Simple as it may seem acquiring information on the world wide web is like seeking a selective fish in the ocean.3 Beginners in internet search often restrict their search only to search engines like Google, yahoo, MSN and infoseek, which results in a narrow outcome of required information. Compilation was done with a view to address these difficulties of beginners.4-8 this article contain web resources simplified even for an amateur.

Natural have been a major source of drugs for centuries. With major advances in Biotechnological and phytochemical techniques, academic and industrial interest in discovering and developing bioactive natural products has been a growing trend. However the present scientific information in intimidating quantities in various forms of database, virtual libraries, journal sites, many often trend to confuse the prospective researcher.9

List of databases- Medicinal plants and alternative medicine resources  
Databases are the collection of citations published in indexed journal article using storage devices such as on line servers, hard disc, and compact discs. A list of online databases and websites related to medicinal plants and alternative medicine is provided in Table 1.10-11          

 

USDA/NRCS-Plants national database-plant’s standardized information

http://plants.usda.gov/plants/

Monographs


American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

http://herbal-ahp.org/

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia

http://www.exeter.ac.uk/chs/resqual.html

European scientific cooperative on phytomedicine(ESCOP)publications

http://info.ex.ac.uk/phytonet/pubs.html

German Commission E Monograph

http://www.herbalgram.org/browse.php/comission_e



United State Pharmacopoeia (USP) Developing botanical monographs

http://www.usp.org/

http://www.usp.org/dietary/availability.htm

World Health organization-WHO Monographs on selected medicinal plants

http://www.who.org/.

World Health Organization’s Regulatory Situation of Herbal Medicine

http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/who-trm98-1/who-trm-98-1.doc

USDA/ARS-Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

chemicals and their biological activities in a particular plants

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/plants.html

chemicals/concentration in a particular plant

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/sd.html

chemicals with a specific activity in a particular plant

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/plant_lact.html

Ethnobotanical uses for one or more plants

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/ethnobot.html

plants containing a particular chemical

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/highchem.html

BIOSIS-provides vital sources of information for life scientists

http://www.bios.org/

CISCOM Database

http://www.recm.org.uk/cisc.htm

Chinese Medicines:Traditional Chinese medicine database system

http://www.cintcm.com/index.htm

HerbMed- A Herbal Database

http://www.herbmed.org/

Indian System Of Medicine –A gateway for information on Indian system of medicine and homeopathyby department of ISMH ministry of health and family welfare ,govt.of India

http://www.indianmedicine.nic.in/

The Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts(MAPA)6-A bimonthly abstracting journal by cc (NISCAIR), provides coverage of the global literature on all aspects of medicinal and aromatic plants.

Contact address-

The Director, National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, Dr.K S Krishnan Marg,New Delhi 110012,India

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy(MANTIS)

http://www.healthindex.com/MANTISabout.html

Dialog Corporation

http://www.library.dialog.com/bluesheets/html/b10091.html

Health Index

http://www.healthindex.com/

OVID databases

http://www.ovid.com/

MEDLINE databases- is the best interface known as Pubmed from the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda,USA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nlh.gov/entrez/

Medicinal and Poisonous Plant Databases

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/ibc99/poison/

MICROMEDEX Complementary and alternative Medicine(CAM) Series- A series of databases covering four areas , viz. herbal medicine and dietary supplements, clinical protocols, patient education, and herbal and dietary supplement toxicology

http://www.micromedex.com/products/healthcare/cam/

NAPRALERT, Natural Product Alert- from STN International: provides bibliographic and factual data on natural products,including information on the pharmacology, biological activity, taxonomic distribution, ethnomedicine and chemistry of plants.

http://info.cas.org/ONLINE/DBSS/napralertss.html

http://stneasy.cas.org/html/english/login1.html

Patent Database-US patent and trademark office: A tool to locate registered patents in complementary and alternative medicine

http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html

PhytoNET-`Resource for those involved in the development, manufacturing, regulation and surveillance of phytomedicines and herbal drugs.

http://www.escop.com/phytonet.htm

Poisonous Plant Database-

http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~djw/readme.html

List of industries involved in formulation of herbal products is listed in Table 2. Taxonomical details of medicinal plants and its botanical images can be obtained from the websites given in Table 3.A list of differents organizations (Indian Govt) providing funds, projects and instrumental facility are given in Table 4. Forthcoming events, symposium, and global conferences can be obtained from the websites of different societies and organizations given in Table 5.List of some URL address of journals is given in Table 6.

Table-2 List of Indian Industries involved in manufacturing of herbal formulations

Himalaya Drug Co

http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/index.htm

Dabur India Ltd.

http://www.dabur.com/

Hamdard(WAKF)

http://www.hamdard.com/

Fem Care Pharma

http://www.indiafemcare.com/

Shree Baidyanath Ayurved Bhawan

http://www.baidyanath.com/

Atra Pharmaceuticals

http://www.atrapharma.com/

Cipex

http://www.cipex.com/

Gufic Healthcare

http://www.gufic.com/

Ranbaxy Ltd

http://www.ranbaxy.com/

Sami Labs

http://www.samilabs.com/

Sears Phytochem

http://www.searsphytochem.com/

Kerala Ayurveda Pharmacy

http://www.kapl-ayur.com/html/k0000hom.htm

Table 3- List of websites for botanical images10-11

Vascular Plant Image Gallery

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLOR/gallery/gallery_query.htm

Poisonous Plants

http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/plants.html

Australian National Botanical Garden

http://155.187.10.12/images/photo_ed/

Botanical Image Database

http://www.helsinki.fi/kmus/botpics.html

CalPhotos:California Plants & Habitats

http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/flora/

Color Illustrations Of Plants

http://chili.rt66.com/hrbmoore/images/walcott.html

Color Illustrations from the National Geographic Society

http://chili.r66.com/hrbmoore/NGSImages/NGS.html

European wild plant photo

http://www.gagg.mcmail.com/flora.htm

Flora of Europe

http://utopiaknoware.nl/users/aart/index.html

Index of plant pictures by Genus and Species

http://chili.rt66.com/hrbmoore/HOMEPAGE/GenusIndex.html

Kohler’s Medicinal plants

http://www.mobot.org/MOROT/research/library/kohler/taxa.html

Medicinal Herbs by Common Name (UW)

http://www.nnlm.nlm.nih.gov/pnr/uwmhg/comnames.html

Medicinal plant Photographs by genus

http://chili.rt66.com/hrbmoore/images/JPEGS.html

PharmaCD- Family Index

http://pharma-apv.unizh.ch/CD-ROM/Familien/Familien.html

Stein’sVirtual Herbarium

http://filebox.vt.edu/forestry/wildlife/stein/plants.html

Table-4 List of Government organization involved in medicinal plant research (INDIA)10

CSIR-Council for Scientific and Industrial Research(funding Agency)

http://www.cmmacs.ernet.in/nal/icst/csirh.html

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

http://www.icmr.nic.in/

CCMB-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology,Hyderabad

http://www.ccmbindia.org/

Central Council of Research and Ayurvedic System

http://ccras.org/bibliography/klist.htm

CDRI- Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow

http://www.cdriindia.org/

CFTRI-Central Food Technological Research Institute,Mysore

http://www.cftri.com

CIMAP-Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Lucknow

http://www.cimap.res.in/

IICB-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Calcutta

http://www.iicb.res.in/

IICT- Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad

http://www.cmmacs.ernet.in/iict/

IISc-Indian Institute of Science

http://iisc.ernet.in

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

http://igidr.ac.in

Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research

http://jncasr.ac.in

National Academy of Agricultural Science

http://www.naas.edu

National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow

http://www.nbri-lko.org/R&D.htm

National Institute of Ayurveda Research

http://niam.com/corp-web/index.htm

NIPER-National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research

http://www.niper.nic.in/

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

http://tifr.res.in

Libraries and document retrieval centers


NISCAIR

http://www.niscair.res.in/

Union Catalogue of Biomedical Serials

http://uncat.nic.in/

MEDLARS CENTRE

http://indmed.nic.in/

Sophisticated Instruments facilities in India


Regional Sophisticated instruments facilities in India

http://dst.gov.in/scprog/infra/rsic.htm

RSIC,IIT,Powai, Mumbai

http://www.rsic.iitb.ernet.in

RSIC,IIT, Chennai

http://www.rsic.iitm.ernet.in

RSIC,CDRI, Lucknow

http://www.cdriindia.org/

SICART, Gujarat

http://www.sicart.ac.in/

Spic Science Foundation

http://www.spicscience.org/

SIF,IISc, Bangalore

http://sif.iisc.ernet.in

Table –5  List of organizations and societies related to Pharmacy Education10-11  

Phytochemical Society of Europe

http://www.DMU.AC.UK/In/pse/

Europian Scientific Co-operative on Phytotherapy

http://www.exeter.ac.uk/phytonet/escop.html

Europian society of ethnopharmacology

http://ethnopharma.multimania.com/

The American society of Pharmacognosy

http://www.phcog.org/

European weed research society

http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/ewrs/

Herb Research Foundation

http://www.herbs.org/

Pharmazeutische Biologie in Deutschland (Pharmaceutical Biology in Germany)

http://www.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de/WWW/MathNat/PharmBio/liphabio.htm

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants   and Drug Research Centre(TBAM) of Anadolu, University in Eskisehir, Turkey

http://www.tbam.anadolu.edu.tr/index.html

International Council for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

http://www.icmap.org/

Boyce Thompson Institute of Plant Research

http://bti.cornell.edu/

American Society of plant Biologists

http://www.aspb.org/

The Society for Economic Botany

http://www.econbot.org/

International Society for Ethnopharmacology

http://www.dfh.dk/staff/private/ulny/ISE/

International Organizationfor Plant Information

http://iopi.csu.edu.au/iopi/

Phytochemical Society of  North America

http://www.fiu.edu/orgs/psna/

Society for Ethnomedicine

http://www.med.uni-muenchen.de/medpsy/ethno/

Table-6 List of URL Address of some Journals related to pharmacy

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

http://jpp.pharmpress.com/content/html/

Journal of Natural Remedies

http://www.jnronline.com

Journal of Natural Products

http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jnprdf/index.html

Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy

http://www.haworthpressinc.com/store/Default.asp

Journal of Ethnopharmacology

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jethpharm

Journal of Asian Natural Products Research

http://www.gbhap.com/journals/419/419-top.htm

Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry

http://www.pubs.acs.org/journals/jafcau/

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http://www.niscair.res.in

Indian Journal of Pharmacology

http://www.ijp-online.com

Indian Drugs

http://www.idma.org

Current Science

http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/index.html

Chemistry of Natural Compound

http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0009-3130

Fitoterapia

http://www.indena.it/fitotrp.htm

European Journal of Herbal Medicine

http://guest.btinternet.com/~nimh/frameacc.html

History of Traditional Indian Medicine

http://www.mic.ki.se/India.html

Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Abstracts

http://www.niscom.res.in/

Natural Products Report

http://www.rsc.org/is/journals/current/npr/nprpub.htm

Natural Product Letters

http://www.gbhap-us.com/journals/724/724-top.htm

Planta Medica

http://www.thieme.com/chemistry/aec.htm

Plant Science (Elsevier)

http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/5/0/6/0/3/0/

Pharmaceutical Biology

http://www.swets.nl/sps/journals/pb.html

Phytochemistry

http://www.elsevier.nl/inca/publications/store/2/7/3/index.htm

Phytochemical Analysis (Wiley)

http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0958-0344/info.html

Phytomedicine

http://www.urbanfischer.de/journals/phytomed/phytmed.htm

Phytotherapy Research

http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0951-418X/

Review of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

http://www.cabi.org/publishing/products/journals/Abstract/RAMP/index.asp

Toxicon

http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/2/5/9/

Xenobiotica

http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/tf/00498254.html

List of Discussion group


PhytoNET mail-base

http://www.exeter.ac.uk/phytonet/

Phytopharmacognosy

http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists/phytopharmacognosy/join.html

Phytopharmacognosy internet Discussion group

http://www.phytochemistry.freeserve.co.uk/

The Garden Web Forum

http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/

                                                         DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Today the Internet has presented the researcher with more effective tools for systemic literature search; this article will ease in handling of existing information. In developing countries like India, Much of the access to future online environments will be cheaper and broad bandwidth through optic fibre cable networks.  Internet is a rich source of information that can be used for advancement in medicinal plant research. The wide spread availability of information will enable researcher to break barrier that currently limits drug discovery. Computer literacy and Internet usage should become an integral component of pharmacy education, as it plays an important role in Drug discovery process.

                                                                          REFERENCES

 


  1. Tripathi Arun Kumar, The Internet and its uses in education.Virtual Univ J,(2000) 89.
  2. Lawrence S& Giles C L, searching the World Wide Web.Sciense, 280(1998) 83.
  3. Soumen Chakraborti et al.Hyper searching the Web, Sci Am,(1999) 56.
  4. atinder Singh, Herbs on the Net, Indian J Pharmacol, 33(2001) 463.
  5. Pal Sanjoy Kumar, Singh M K, Pandey G S, & Mithal B, Internet resources for human geneticist,Indian J Exp.Biol,39 (2001) 503.
  6. Wolfgang G H, &Johnson D E, Web resources for drug toxicity and toxicology, Toxicology, 173(1-2)(2002) 67.
  7. Greenberg G. Internet resources for occupational and environmental health professionals, Toxicology, 157(1-2)(2002) 263.
  8. South J C, Online resources for news about toxicology and other environmental topics,Toxicology, 157 (1-2) (2002) 153.
  9. Pal sanjoy Kumar, Aamir Nazir, Indranil M, Saxena D K, & Choudhri D K, Internet-A major resource for for Toxicologist, Indian J Exp Biol,39(2001) 1207.
  10. Mueen Ahmed K K, Rana A C, Dixit V K, & Kamath J V, Web resources in pharmacognosy, Phytopharmacology on the internet(In Pharm Publication,Banglore ,India) 2001,101.
  11. Mueen Ahmed K K, Rana A C, Dixit V K, & Shivananda B G, Online resources in photochemistry and pharmacognosy,Web resources in Pharmacy (In Pharm Publication, Banglore,India)2002.118.
  12. Lucy Horeau &Edgar De Silva, Medicinal Plants: A reemerging health aid Electronic J Biotechnol 2(2)(1999) 56.
  13. Mohanasundram J, Screening of medicinal plants for pharmacological actions:Importance of review of literature through WWWIndian J Pharmacol, 33(20-01) 460.
  14. Butler D, Internet any help bridge the gap,  Nature, 379(1999) 10.
  15. Millman A, Lee N, & Kealey K, The Internet,BMJ, 311(1995) 440.

 

 

Featured Events

 
 
150 x 150socila
 
150x150Anna
 
Asthma COPD 150x150 copy
 
150 x 150 cell
 
MEDAFF17A 150x150